Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia without Maturation
Type of disease: Rare conditions
Acute myeloid leukemia without maturation (AML-M1) is a rapidly-progressing cancer that affects bone marrow and therefore blood. In AML-M1, myeloids, a type of premature blood cell, are affected and do not reach “maturation.” Instead of forming function white blood cells, these blasts can prevent other healthy cells from forming in the body.
Symptoms of AML-M1 include easy bruising, bone pain, fatigue, fever, frequent nosebleeds, bleeding from the gums, sudden weight loss, night sweats, loss of appetite, dizziness, shortness of breath, bone/joint pain, abdominal swelling, and rashes.
Susceptibility to developing AML-M1 may be genetic and has been linked to genes such as CEBPA, ETV6, JAK2, and KRAS2 among others. Genes are made up of DNA passed down from parent to child that help create proteins responsible for normal bodily/cellular functions. The inheritance patterns for these genes vary. AML-M1 may also be caused by certain blood disorders, or environmental/drug exposures; however, many who develop AML-M1 have no apparent risk factors.
Diagnosis of AML-M1 may include a medical history evaluation and physical exam, blood and bone marrow testing, and other biochemical tests. AML-M1 is treated with a variety of management plans. Like other cancers or leukemias, AML-M1 may be treated with chemotherapy and/or a targeted therapy drug. A stem cell transplant may also be an option if necessary, as well as surgery or radiation in special cases. AML-M1 has a high survival rate – in patients younger than 60, ~70 to 80% will go into remission (cancer recovery) after the first round of chemotherapy; however, patients over 60 may not have as high a chance at remission.
If you or a family member have been diagnosed with AML-M1, speak with your doctor about the most current treatment options. Support groups may also be available for further resources and information.