FDFM, familial dyskinesia with facial myokymia
Type of disease: Genetic, autosomal dominant | Rare Condition or Disease
ADCY5-related dyskinesia is a movement disorder; the term “dyskinesia” refers to abnormal involuntary movements. The abnormal movements that occur in ADCY5-related dyskinesia typically appear as sudden (paroxysmal) jerks, twitches, tremors, muscle tensing (dystonia), or writhing (choreiform) movements, and can affect the limbs, neck, and face.
The abnormal movements associated with ADCY5-related dyskinesia usually begin between infancy and late adolescence. They can occur continually during waking hours, and frequently also disturb sleep. The involuntary movements often occur when changing position, such as from sitting to standing, or when deliberately making other movements.
Severely affected infants may experience weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and delay in development of motor skills such as crawling and walking; later, these individuals may have difficulties with activities of daily living and may eventually require a wheelchair. In more mildly affected individuals, the condition has little impact on walking and other motor skills, although the abnormal movements can lead to clumsiness or difficulty with social acceptance in school or other situations.
In some people with ADCY5-related dyskinesia, the disorder is generally stable throughout their lifetime. In others, it slowly gets worse (progresses) in both frequency and severity before stabilizing or even improving in middle age. Anxiety, fatigue, and other stress can temporarily increase the severity of the signs and symptoms of ADCY5-related dyskinesia, while some affected individuals may experience remission periods of days or weeks without abnormal movements. Life expectancy is not usually affected by ADCY5-related dyskinesia, and most people with this condition have normal intelligence.