Type of disease: Rare conditions
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) (amelogenesis - enamel formation; imperfecta - imperfect) is a disorder that affects the structure and appearance of the enamel of the teeth. This condition causes teeth to be unusually small, discolored, pitted or grooved, and prone to rapid wear and breakage. These dental problems, which vary among affected individuals, can affect both primary (baby) teeth and permanent teeth. There are 4 main types of AI that are classified based on the type of enamel defect. These 4 types are divided further into 14 subtypes, which are distinguished by their specific dental abnormalities and by their pattern of inheritance. AI can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive pattern.Source: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD), supported by ORDR-NCATS and NHGRI.