Mental retardation X-linked, South African type
Type of disease: Rare conditions
Mental retardation – X-linked, South African type refers to a form of intellectual disability that is characterized mainly by below-average mental ability, an inability to speak, sudden periods of continuous shaking of the entire body (seizures), and weak eye muscles. Hence, individuals with this form of intellectual disability have problems with communication with others and performing tasks involving physical activity. The continuous shaking can also lead to fatigue. Weak eye muscles can also lead to vision problems. Males are more likely to have a more severe form of the condition than females. Like other individuals with intellectual disability, an individual with this condition often has problems with reasoning and solving problems, as well as performing day-to-day tasks. The condition is often diagnosed during childhood. Doctors diagnose this form of intellectual disability if continuous shaking of the body and an inability to speak are observed. Signs like walking and talking late, slow mastering of basic tasks, and having difficulty remembering things may also suggest this condition in children. Treatment is developed on a case-by-case basis and depends on the specific needs of the patient. Brain specialists can provide treatment for the epileptic symptoms. Treatments for seizures include various medications, brain surgery, directly stimulating nerve cells, and changes to one’s diet. Speech therapists may also suggest patients undergo speech therapy to help improve communication skills. Doctors seek help from various therapists and community services to provide support and care for families affected by intellectual disability.