Type of disease: Rare conditions
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome is an inherited condition that mainly affects the brain, immune system, and skin. It is characterized by early-onset severe brain dysfunction (encephalopathy) that usually results in severe intellectual and physical disability. Additional symptoms may include epilepsy, painful, itchy skin lesion (chilblains), vision problems, and joint stiffness. Symptoms usually progress over several months before the disease course stabilizes. There are six different types of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, which are distinguished by the gene that causes the condition: TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, and ADAR genes. Most cases are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, although rare autosomal dominant cases have been reported. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.Source: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD), supported by ORDR-NCATS and NHGRI.