Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus
Type of disease: Rare conditions
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDB) is a type of diabetes that appears within the first 6 months of life and persists throughout life. Affected individuals have slow growth before birth followed by hyperglycemia, dehydration and failure to thrive in infancy. Some individuals also have neurological problems including developmental delay and epilepsy; when these problems are present with PNDB, it is called DEND syndrome. A few individuals with PNDB also have an underdeveloped pancreas and may have digestive problems. PNDB is caused by mutations in any one of several genes (some of which have not yet been identified) including the KCNJ11, ABCC8, and INS genes. It may be inherited in an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant manner. Treatment includes rehydration, insulin therapy and/or long-term therapy with oral sulfonylureas (in some cases). Source: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD), supported by ORDR-NCATS and NHGRI.